UPDATE: Reopening Europe: Where can you go? What are the rules? A country-by-country guide
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Editor’s note: This story was updated on Sept. 19, 2021, with new information.
Since the European Union recommended that member states reinstate travel restrictions for unvaccinated U.S. visitors on Aug. 30, 2021, due to rising COVID-19 cases, several European countries have issued updated guidance regarding unvaccinated travelers from the U.S.
So far, most EU countries are still allowing vaccinated travelers as they have been since this summer.
And as of mid-September 2021, out of the 47 European countries on this list, 22 are currently restricting travel to only vaccinated visitors from the U.S. (or are requiring quarantine). Keep that in mind when planning travel.
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While Europe has made great strides with its EU Digital COVID Certificate, giving Europeans a uniform way to provide proof of full vaccination against COVID-19, negative PCR or antigen tests and/or recovery from COVID-19, it remains inaccessible to Americans traveling in Europe. Nor has a digital equivalent been introduced yet in the States.
U.S.-based travelers may be able to convert their vaccination card issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention into a digital certificate to comply with the EU’s Digital COVID Certificate by visiting local pharmacies in certain countries, such as France. Some countries, including France, are requiring a digital health pass to show that one has been tested, vaccinated or has recently recovered from COVID-19. You’ll find that all three CDC-authorized vaccines (Johnson & Johnson, Moderna and Pfizer) are accepted across Europe.
One important note is that the U.S. government still requires all airline passengers coming back to the U.S. (over the age of 2) to show a negative COVID-19 viral test taken within three calendar days before departure, regardless of travel location. Alternatively, travelers may provide documentation from a licensed health care provider of having recovered from COVID-19 in the 90 days preceding travel.
If you want to find out where U.S. travelers can go right now, follow this link for our complete guide to which countries are allowing U.S. travelers.
In the meantime, this guide summarizes each European country’s current status for international travel:
The Albanian government lifted all restrictions on tourism on July 1, 2020, and commercial flights have resumed, but some connections through major European hubs were reduced in December 2020.
As of Sept. 6, 2021, Albania has reimplemented testing requirements for visitors. Per the U.S. Embassy, all passengers age 6 and older arriving in Albania must show one of the following to enter:
- A vaccination passport where the date of full vaccination is no later than two weeks from the date of entry in Albania.
- Proof a negative PCR test within 72 hours or a rapid antigen test within 48 hours.
- Documentation from a licensed health care provider of having recovered from COVID-19 in the six months preceding travel.
Wearing masks in all indoor public spaces remains mandatory, as well as outdoors when social distancing is not possible, for those over the age of 11. Albania has a curfew from 11 p.m. to 6 a.m. until further notice and all bars, restaurants and fast-food outlets can offer delivery only during those hours.
The U.S. Embassy also notes that travelers should be prepared for travel restrictions to be put into effect with little or no advance notice.
Armenia has reopened its borders to Americans, according to the U.S. Embassy in Armenia. All visitors are required to show proof of vaccination at least 14 days prior to arrival or a negative COVID-19 test taken within 72 hours. Alternatively, you can take a test upon arrival and quarantine until receipt of negative test results.
As of Sept. 6, 2021, children under 6 years of age are exempt from presenting a PCR test or a vaccination certificate. Masks are required on public transit.
Although Austria reopened to American citizens and residents on June 24, a mandatory quarantine has once again been put in place for unvaccinated travelers. Otherwise, quarantine is not required, provided travelers show proof of vaccination or proof of recovery from COVID-19 in the past 180 days (from a doctor or public authority).
As of Sept. 14, 2021, Austria will only consider vaccine certificates valid for 360 days after the first or second dose of a two-dose vaccine, recovery from COVID-19 or after any additional booster shots, per the official government Austrian travel portal, which notes that one-dose vaccines (i.e., Johnson & Johnson) are valid for 270 days beginning the 22nd day following the shot. Booster shots recieved at least 120 days after both single and two-dose vaccines will be valid for an additional 360 days from the day of the booster shot.
Only certificates issued in English or German by medical authorities will be accepted.
Those who can show proof of full vaccination or recovery from COVID-19 are exempt from a mandatory 10-day quarantine, and they do not need to register for pre-travel clearance.
Unvaccinated/unrecovered travelers must show results of a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours or a rapid/antigen test taken within 48 hours prior to entering Austria. Additionally, this group must register online to obtain a pre-travel clearance as well as a quarantine for a minimum of five days, at which point they can test again via a PCR test to end quarantine early. Travelers age 12-18 may enter Austria without quarantine if accompanied by fully vaccinated or recovered parents but must show proof of a negative test, past infection or vaccination.
The country has adopted Germany’s “3G Rule” to require all persons over the age of 6 to show proof of vaccination or a recent negative COVID-19 test to enter certain indoor establishments, including restaurants, bars, hotels and cultural facilities in Austria. A PCR test taken within 48 hours and antigen test taken within 24 hours will be considered valid.
Transiting passengers are not subject to COVID-19 entry restrictions. For details on travel restrictions, check here.
According to the U.S. Embassy in Azerbaijan, U.S. citizens were welcomed back to the country on June 21, 2021, only by air. All travelers 18 and older must have a COVID-19 passport or documentation confirming full vaccination or immunity to COVID-19.
The country is under special quarantine restrictions through Nov. 1, 2021. Restaurants, cafes and most other businesses are open and masks remain obligatory inside and on public transportation.
Belarus has been in the middle of a popular uprising against the man called the “last dictator in Europe,” but the country bordering Russia is open to tourism.
According to the U.S. Embassy in Belarus, Americans are on a list of countries that were allowed to enter as of Aug. 15, 2020, but only through Minsk National Airport (MSQ). Land borders are closed to American travelers.
U.S. passport holders traveling to Belarus via Minsk may enter visa-free for up to 30 days. A negative PCR test taken within 72 hours is required for all travelers from a “red zone” country (which includes the U.S.).
Vaccinated travelers, including those from the U.S., are exempt from an otherwise mandatory seven-day quarantine. Unvaccinated travelers are still expected to complete this quarantine.
Transiting passengers are not subject to quarantine if they depart the country within 48 hours.
Health screening procedures remain in place at airports and other entry ports.
According to the U.S. Embassy in Belgium, only vaccinated travelers from the U.S. are allowed to Belgium for nonessential travel at this time as the U.S. is currently a “red zone” outside of the EU.
Travelers must complete a passenger locator form at least 48 hours prior to arrival. Unvaccinated travelers who are permitted to enter must present results of a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours of departure, as well as quarantine for at least seven days, from which they may be released upon taking a negative COVID-19 test.
Color codes by country can be found here.
All cafes, restaurants, markets, shops and non-medical contact professions, including nail and hair salons, are open. Face masks are mandatory on public transportation. For more information, check the country’s “Current measures” updates.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina reopened to international travelers on Sept. 13, 2020, and Americans can visit. The U.S. Embassy in Bosnia and Herzegovina reports that the country is currently experiencing a higher number of COVID-19 cases than previously.
Travelers must provide a COVID-19 vaccination certificate showing full vaccination completed 10 days prior to arrival, a doctor’s certificate of COVID-19 recovery in the period 10 to 180 days prior to arrival or a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours if coming from the U.S. or 48 hours if coming from within Europe. Masks are required on public transit. According to the U.S. Embassy, requirements and restrictions may change with little or no advance notice.
U.S. citizens are once again allowed to enter the country as of May 1, 2021, according to the U.S. Embassy in Bulgaria, but only under certain conditions as the U.S. is considered a “red zone” as of Sept. 1, 2021, meaning all arrivals from the U.S. are prohibited unless they meet an exception.
Exceptions for entry from “red” countries include the following:
- Bulgarian citizens and those with permanent or long-term residence status in Bulgaria and their immediate family members.
- Citizens of the EU, the European Economic Area and the Swiss Confederation and their family members arriving from those places.
- Medical professionals, medical researchers and social workers traveling related to their duties.
- Humanitarian workers.
- Seasonal tourism workers.
- Students who hold long-term “D” study visas, among others.
Exempted travelers must present one of the following:
- Digital EU COVID-19 certificate.
- Proof of full vaccination.
- Results of a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours.
Those age 12-18 arriving from the red zone may enter the country by presenting results of a negative PCR test, certified by an EU Digital COVID Certificate.
Those who fail to present one of the above will be expected to quarantine for 10 days. Face masks are required on public transit.
U.S. travelers can once again visit Croatia — but they must have proof of accommodation paid in full in advance of arrival to qualify for tourism-specific travel, one of four approved travel categories for travelers from the U.S.
Croatia had reopened for tourists from all countries, but then on Dec. 1, 2020, the government restricted entry and border crossings and instituted varying levels of lockdown to help limit COVID-19 transmission, and as a result, entry for tourism purposes was not permitted for U.S. citizens. That changed as of April 1, 2021.
- A negative result of a PCR test taken within 72 hours of arrival or a rapid antigen test taken less than 48 hours before arrival.
- A vaccination certificate showing vaccination was completed at least 14 days before entry to Croatia and that the final dose was completed within the past 270 days.
- A certificate confirming recovery from a COVID-19 infection with a positive test result having been received within 12 and 270 days of arrival in Croatia.
Unvaccinated travelers can also test upon arrival (at the traveler’s cost) and self-isolate until receiving a negative result. Alternatively, travelers can just self-isolate for 10 days.
All travelers from the U.S. visiting for tourism purposes must also provide proof of accommodation paid in advance in full or they will not be permitted to enter the country. The other approved categories for U.S.-based travelers are:
- Urgent personal/family or business purposes.
- Citizens/residents of EU/European Economic Area member states and their family members.
The U.S. Embassy also notes that entry requirements are subject to change at any time without notice and that the Croatian Border Police have final authority regarding entry into Croatia.
Croatia requires that masks be worn in indoor public spaces and outdoors when social distancing can not be maintained. Restaurants can offer food and beverages for takeout/delivery as well as indoor/outdoor dining, and masks are required.
Cyprus, a small island nation off the coast of Turkey, is now open to Americans arriving directly from the U.S.
According to the U.S. Embassy in Cyprus, all tourists may travel from the U.S. to the Republic of Cyprus without mandatory self-isolation.
Vaccinated travelers must upload their proof of vaccination in an approved Cyrpus Flight Pass within 48 hours of travel, showing proof of full vaccination at least 14 days past their final dose. Unvaccinated travelers must upload proof of a negative PCR test within 72 hours of boarding a flight to Cyprus and then complete another test upon arrival at their own expense (30 euros). Children under the age of 12 do not require testing.
Further details on travel requirements can be found on the Cyprus Tourism hub.
The U.S. Embassy also notes that vaccinated passengers who have a valid vaccination certificate from certain countries (including the U.S.) can travel to Cyprus from any country without having to meet the prerequisites of the country category they are traveling from. Vaccinated travelers, however, can still be selected for random COVID-19 testing on arrival.
Many venues, including indoor/outdoor restaurants, malls, churches, cinemas, etc., with 20-plus people, are restricted to locals with a valid SafePass, equivalent to the aforementioned Cyrpus Flight Pass for tourists, which shows proof of vaccination or a recent negative COVID-19 test. Seating at restaurants is limited to 10 people. Face coverings are required in all public spaces for people age 12 and older.
Although the Czech Republic started welcoming U.S. citizens back on June 21, 2021, the country restricted tourism to vaccinated Americans on Aug. 20, 2021, per the Czech Ministry of the Interior.
Vaccinated travelers from the U.S. can continue to visit the Czech Republic as tourists by presenting proof of vaccination to show at least 14 days have elapsed since their final dose. Vaccines currently accepted are AstraZeneca, Moderna, Pfizer and Johnson & Johnson. A negative COVID-19 test is no longer required for vaccinated persons to enter.
Unvaccinated children between the ages of 6 and 12 may also travel with vaccinated parents but must undergo a PCR test upon arrival and quarantine until receipt of negative test results. Pre-testing requirements do not apply to this age group.
According to the U.S. Embassy in the Czech Republic, COVID-19-related requirements still remain for tourists to enjoy certain activities, including staying at a hotel, eating at restaurants, visiting museums and attending public events. To do so, you must show one of the following:
- Negative PCR test taken within the past 72 hours.
- Negative antigen test from the past 24 hours.
- For single-dose vaccines, such as Johnson & Johnson, proof that 14 days have elapsed after the dose within the last nine months.
- For double-dose vaccines, such as Moderna and Pfizer, proof that 22 days have elapsed after the first dose within the last 90 days, or proof that 22 days have elapsed after the second dose within the last nine months.
- If you have recovered from COVID-19 within six months of travel, proof of such is required.
Additionally, FFP2 or KN95 masks are required in most public spaces, including shops, airports and public transportation (including taxis and ride-sharing services) as well as when social distancing is not possible outdoors.
Although Denmark welcomed back unvaccinated American travelers in July, they restricted tourism to vaccinated travelers on Sept. 3, 2021.
Fully vaccinated travelers from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, including the U.S., have been allowed in the country since June 5, 2021.
According to the U.S. Embassy in Denmark, travelers from the U.S. can enter Denmark for any reason, if they have been vaccinated with a European Medicines Agency-approved vaccine and it has been 14 days or longer since their last vaccine shot. Fully vaccinated travelers from the U.S. are also exempt from testing and quarantine requirements upon arrival in Denmark if they provide documentation of vaccination.
Unvaccinated travelers from the U.S. may only enter Denmark for a “worthy purpose” approved by the Danish government, including work in Denmark or for education purposes. They must test upon arrival at the airport, or submit results of a negative COVID-19 test (PCR test that is no more than 72 hours old or a negative rapid/antigen test that is no more than 48 hours old).
Children under 18 who enter Denmark with a fully vaccinated parent are exempt from the requirement to have a “worthy purpose.” Those under the age of 16 accompanied by a fully vaccinated parent are exempt from testing requirements. Those ages 16 and 17 traveling with a fully vaccinated parent must present a negative test before entry.
Entry rules for Denmark can be found here.
As of June 21, 2021, Estonia is reopened to Americans, according to the U.S. Embassy in Estonia, and quarantine-free entry is available to vaccinated travelers from the U.S. Permitted travelers who have proof of recovery from COVID-19 in the past six months can also enter without having to quarantine.
Unvaccinated travelers may also enter the country by submitting proof of a negative COVID-19 PCR test taken within 72 hours prior to arrival and then quarantining for six days, before taking a second negative test. Testing is also available upon arrival at air and seaports of entry.
Travelers are required to complete an online health declaration form up to 72 hours prior to arrival, with an exemption for vaccinated travelers and those who have recovered from COVID-19.
As of Aug. 26, 2021, COVID-19 certificates are required for individuals 18 and older at most indoor events, including restaurants, bars, cinemas and museums. A certificate must show proof of vaccination status, a negative test or evidence of having recovered. Masks are required in all public indoor spaces where COVID-19 certificates are not checked, including public transportation, shops, shopping centers, banks, post offices, etc.
A mandatory 10-day quarantine remains in place for those coming from high-risk or “red” countries, although two negative PCR tests can waive such requirement, taken upon arrival and another six days after arrival. See more information regarding the designation of countries based on infection rate here.
As of September 2021, Finland is restricted to vaccinated Americans only, per the Visit Finland tourism board.
Vaccinated travelers from all countries, including the U.S., can enter Finland as long as they have been fully vaccinated for at least 14 days prior to entry with an EMA/WHO-authorized vaccine. Acceptable vaccination certificates include the EU Digital COVID Certificate as well as those written in English, Finnish or Swedish.
The Finnish Border Guard provides guidelines for border traffic during the pandemic and currently prohibits unvaccinated travelers from the U.S. unless they have an essential reason for travel approved by the Finnish government, through at least Sept. 19, 2021. Approved unvaccinated travelers must submit results of a negative COVID-19 test or proof of recent recovery. Alternatively, they can take two tests upon arrival. See more information from the Finnish institute for health and welfare here.
Consult the U.S. Embassy in Finland for further updates.
As of Sept. 10, 2021, France has restricted tourism to vaccinated Americans only due to the redesignation of the U.S. as an “orange” country, requiring unvaccinated U.S. travelers to present an “essential” reason for travel, per the French Ministry of Affairs.
Those unvaccinated travelers who are approved due to a pressing reason must provide a negative PCR or antigen test taken within 72 or 48 hours of boarding your flight, respectively, and submit to a mandatory seven-day self-isolation, followed by an additional PCR test.
Fully vaccinated travelers coming from the U.S. and those under the age of 17 accompanied by a fully vaccinated parent or guardian will still be able to enter France with proof of vaccination and a sworn statement they do not have symptoms of COVID-19 nor contact with someone with a confirmed case of COVID-19, per the U.S. Embassy & Consulates in France. Testing requirements are no longer in place for vaccinated visitors.
Only the AstraZeneca, Johnson & Johnson, Moderna and Pfizer vaccines are accepted for vaccinated individuals.
As of Aug. 1, 2021, a digital health pass is required for visitors to partake in certain activities, including public transit, eating at cafes and restaurants and shopping. Those who are not fully vaccinated or who are awaiting a French health pass can obtain a temporary, 72-hour pass by taking a negative antigen or PCR test on the ground in France. The CDC card is currently being accepted as proof of vaccination but does not suffice for the digital health pass.
Masks are required in public spaces. Details on additional restrictions are available here.
Americans are permitted to enter the country of Georgia freely by air, according to the U.S. Embassy in Georgia, and without quarantine.
For vaccinated travelers arriving by air or sea, you may be unconditionally admitted upon showing a COVID-19 vaccine certificate. For unvaccinated travelers from the U.S. and other countries that can be found here, you must:
- Arrive by air, directly from a listed country.
- Present a negative PCR test result conducted 72 hours or less before arrival in Georgia.
In addition to the above, unvaccinated travelers must also get a follow-up PCR test at your own expense on the third day after arrival in Georgia.
Unvaccinated travelers should complete an application form prior to arrival with contact details and travel history. Travelers under the age of 10 are exempt from the obligation to provide a negative PCR test result conducted 72 hours or less before arrival in Georgia, and from the obligation to get a follow-up PCR test on the third day after arrival in Georgia.
The embassy also notes that travelers from Georgia are not able to transit specific countries en route back to the U.S., specifically Germany, France, Austria, the Netherlands and Poland.
Only fully vaccinated travelers from the U.S. are allowed into Germany as of Aug. 1, 2021, per the German Missions in the U.S. Individuals are considered fully vaccinated 14 days after receiving their last vaccine dose as well as those who can prove recovery from COVID-19 within the past six months.
Unvaccinated visitors will only be permitted entry if they can “demonstrate an important reason” for entering the country as well as provide a negative COVID-19 test (taken within 72 hours for a PCR test or 38 hours for an antigen test), per the U.S. Embassy & Consulates in Germany.
All travelers, regardless of vaccination status, must complete a digital registration form and everyone over the age of 12 must bring proof of vaccination.
Upon approval from the German government, unvaccinated travelers coming from high-risk areas, like the U.S., must quarantine for 10 days, per the U.S. Embassy. Vaccinated travelers and those who have recovered from COVID-19 in the last six months are exempt.
The quarantine can be cut short by submitting a negative COVID-19 test on day five of being in Germany. Those under 12 can end quarantine automatically at the same time without a test.
All travelers coming from a “virus-variant area” are subject to a 14-day quarantine, vaccination status notwithstanding. There is no possibility of ending quarantine early, per the embassy.
The Robert Koch Institute maintains a list of high-risk areas listed here. More information on additional requirements for travelers coming from designated risk countries can be found here. Medical-grade masks are required on public transit.
Americans are able to travel to Greece rather seamlessly via a quick digital form and proof of either vaccination or a negative PCR test.
Per the U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Greece, the country is restricted to third-country nationals (including U.S. citizens) who are also EU citizens/permanent residents or are residing permanently in specific countries.
Regardless, all passengers looking to enter Greece must complete a passenger locator form at least 24 hours before their arrival in Greece, which will generate a QR code via email. Additionally, the Greek government requires passengers over the age of 12 to provide one of the following:
- Negative COVID-19 PCR test taken within 72 hours of arrival.
- Proof of a negative COVID-19 rapid antigen test taken within 48 hours of arrival.
- Proof of a COVID-19 vaccination completed at least 14 days before travel, including Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson.
- A certificate of recovery from COVID-19 issued by a public authority or a certified laboratory.
- Proof that the traveler tested positive with COVID-19 in the past two to nine months, either through a positive PCR or an antigen test, or a medical certificate verifying that the holder had tested positive for COVID-19.
As of Sept. 2, 2021, masks are still required indoors. Public indoor spaces, including restaurants and cafes, and all spaces of nightclubs and bars, are only accessible to those who can show proof of vaccination or recent recovery from COVID-19, per the U.S. Embassy.
As of Aug. 8, 2021, U.S. citizens may enter Hungary by air by submitting a negative COVID-19 test taken within 72 hours, per the U.S. Embassy in Hungary.
Test results may be in Hungarian or English. Currently, travelers are free to enter Hungary by road, rail or waterway, regardless of origin point. U.S. citizens are not required to quarantine at this time.
Entry into hotels, stores, restaurants, baths and waterparks is possible without proof of immunity or vaccination for COVID-19, but such is still required to attend large gatherings, such as sporting events or music festivals, per the Hungarian government.
Iceland is once again welcoming U.S. travelers — but only if they’ve completed their COVID-19 vaccination or can present proof of a previous infection via a positive antibody test, per the U.S. Embassy in Iceland.
As of July 1, 2021, there is no longer a requirement for arrival testing for passengers vaccinated against COVID-19, but all travelers, regardless of vaccinations status, must present a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours of arrival. Additionally, unvaccinated persons must submit to a test upon arrival, followed by a five-day quarantine and two additional PCR tests. Those who have recently recovered from COVID-19 must also present a negative test.
Travelers born in 2005 or later will continue to be exempted from all border measures, according to the Embassy.
For U.S. visitors, you must meet one of two criteria:
- A completed AstraZeneca, Johnson & Johnson, Moderna or Pfizer vaccine.
- A previous COVID-19 infection, as confirmed with a positive antibody test or positive PCR test older than 14 days.
Visitors with significant ties to Iceland must be tested within 48 hours of arrival to Iceland.
All visitors need to preregister before travel and can present an official paper or electronic COVID-19 vaccine certificate that includes the traveler’s name, date of birth, date and location of vaccination, vaccine administered and the manufacturer and batch or lot number, as outlined on this page.
Per the U.S. Embassy in Ireland, both vaccinated and unvaccinated Americans are allowed into Ireland at this time.
No travel-related testing or quarantine is necessary for entry for U.S. travelers who can show proof of vaccination via an EMA-authorized vaccine or recovery from COVID-19 in the past 180 days, but unvaccinated travelers must present results of a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours as well as quarantine for 14 days, to be shortened by taking a negative PCR test on day five.
Children between the ages of 12 and 17 will also be required to show results of a negative PCR unless they have proof of vaccination or recent recovery from COVID-19, according to the Irish government.
All visitors also need to fill out a passenger locator form at least 48 hours prior to arrival. Failure to complete testing and quarantine requirements is punishable by Irish law via a fine of up to $2,860 or six months in jail, per the Embassy.
As of March 26, 2021, passengers arriving into Ireland from designed high-risk countries, including those only transiting through Ireland, must quarantine for two weeks in a government-approved hotel. The list of high-risk countries can be found here and does not include the U.S.
Face masks are required on public transit and are recommended in outdoor settings where social distancing isn’t possible.
Through at least Oct. 25, 2021, Americans are allowed to visit Italy as long as they can provide proof of vaccination or a recent negative COVID-19 test, per the Italian government.
Americans are to present results of a negative PCR or antigen test taken within 72 hours of arrival to Italy, in addition to showing one of the following:
- A COVID-19 vaccination certificate showing proof of an EMA-authorized vaccine, specifically Pfizer, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson or AstraZeneca. The date of the final vaccine dose must be at least 14 days prior to travel. Travelers vaccinated in the U.S. can prove this via the CDC’s “white card” given at vaccination.
- A medical certificate confirming recovery from COVID-19 dated within six months before departure.
Passengers unable to present a valid vaccination or recovery certificate will have to self-isolate on arrival for five days and undergo a PCR or rapid antigen test at the end of isolation, per the U.S. Embassy & Consulates in Italy.
Additionally, proof of vaccination is required to visit most indoor establishments, including museums, restaurants, bars, pastry shops and public transportation, as of Aug. 6, 2021. The CDC card plus a government-issued photo ID will be accepted as proof to access these indoor venues.
Unvaccinated travelers may be able to gain access by showing results of a negative COVID-19 test within the last 48 hours.
All arrivals to Italy must notify the local health authority and complete an online passenger locator form.
Children age 6 and older accompanied by a parent/caregiver with the EU Digital COVID Certificate must still take the pre-departure COVID-19 test while children under age 6 are exempt.
Masks are mandatory on public transit. Transiting through Italian airports is allowed, but those traveling from specific countries are required to remain within a designated area of the airport during transit. See the Italian Ministry of Health’s website for more details.
All arrivals in Kosovo must provide proof of vaccination or results of a negative COVID-19 PCR test taken within 72 hours of arrival or 48 hours for a rapid antigen test. Travelers who have proof of recovery from COVID-19 within the past 180 days can also present that to satisfy entry requirements, per the U.S. Embassy in Kosovo.
Those transiting Kosovo for less than three hours as well as those under the age of 18 are exempt from arrival testing requirements.
Face masks are mandatory in most settings, including when not alone outdoors. Restaurants are currently only open for outdoor dining until 9:30 p.m., and a curfew remains in place from 10 p.m. to 5 a.m.
As of Sept. 1, 2021, travel to Latvia is restricted to vaccinated travelers only with few exceptions, per the U.S. Embassy in Latvia.
The new regulations permit vaccinated travelers who can show proof of vaccination via a CDC paper vaccine certificate, digital EU certificate or a vaccination certificate issued in other countries (including the EU, EEA, Switzerland or the United Kingdom). Vaccinated travelers from the EU, EEA, Switzerland or the U.K. are free to travel to Latvia for nonessential travel without a negative COVID-19 test or self-isolation.
Unvaccinated U.S. travelers arriving in Latvia from high-risk countries, including the U.S., may only enter Latvia for “essential” travel approved by the government. If approved, those travelers must show results of a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours before arrival or a negative antigen test taken within 48 hours, followed by a second test within 24 hours after arrival at the traveler’s expense, along with a 10-day self-isolation period.
U.S. citizens arriving from other countries designated by Latvia as low-risk may enter Latvia for nonessential purposes, including tourism. The Latvian government maintains a list of country designations by risk of COVID-19 here.
Travelers who have visited countries not designated as low-risk for COVID-19 in the previous 14 days are still prohibited from Latvia as tourists.
All unvaccinated travelers age 11 and over, including U.S. citizens, will be required to present a negative COVID-19 test from within the previous 72 hours. If the result is positive, the traveler must pay for self-isolation in one of the tourist accommodations specified by the Latvian Investment and Development Agency.
Additionally, all visitors must complete an electronic confirmation form no earlier than 48 hours before entering the country, confirming that they will agree to established epidemiological safety measures upon arrival.
Per the embassy, there are no direct flights between the United States and Latvia.
Switzerland handles immigration and customs matters for Liechtenstein, meaning that as long as you are qualified to enter Switzerland, you are able to enter Liechtenstein. There is an open border between the two countries.
Americans are allowed in for tourism at this time, according to the U.S. Embassy in Switzerland, so long as you show one of the following:
- Proof of full vaccination.
- Results of a negative COVID-19 test.
- Recovery from COVID-19.
If you have been in a country with a variant of concern in the last 10 days before entering Switzerland, are not vaccinated or are unable to prove that you have recovered from COVID-19 in the last six months, you must quarantine for 10 days, with an opportunity to shorten quarantine after seven days with testing. Visit the Swedish government’s website for more information.
As of June 1, 2021, fully vaccinated U.S. citizens are allowed to enter Lithuania, per the U.S. Embassy in Lithuania, which also notes that there are no direct flights between the two countries and therefore encourages travelers to double-check entry/exit requirements of transiting countries.
U.S. citizens who have been fully vaccinated do not need to quarantine or self-isolate.
All travelers will be required to complete an online registration form no earlier than 48 hours before the start of the trip and present a digital QR code to the carrier upon boarding.
For additional information about entry requirements, consult the Lithuanian government’s website.
Luxembourg currently only allows EU citizens, EU residents and residents of certain other specific countries to enter, including those coming from the U.S.
All travelers flying by air to Luxumbourg, age 6 and over, must present one of the following:
- A vaccination certificate attesting to a complete vaccination carried out by an EMA, public or medical authority of a member state of the EU or a member state of the Schengen Area, including AstraZeneca, Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson and Moderna.
- A negative COVID-19 PCR or viral antigen test taken within 72 hours of travel.
- A certificate of recovery issued by a physician or a national authority of a member state of the EU or a member state of the Schengen Area for persons who have recovered from COVID-19 within six months prior to travel.
Per the U.S. Embassy in Luxembourg, U.S. citizens are not required to quarantine.
Consult the Luxembourgian government for more information.
The U.S. is no longer on Malta’s “amber list” of countries, which means only vaccinated Americans are allowed to visit.
You must have been fully vaccinated at least two weeks before arrival, per the U.S. Embassy in Malta:
“As of 01 August 2021 CDC vaccination cards must be verified through the VeriFLY app to be accepted as a valid vaccination certificate.”
Per the Maltese government, all arrivals from the U.K. will be required to demonstrate proof of full vaccination. For U.K. nationals, this means a paper version of the National Health Service COVID-19 letter, which can be found here.
If accompanied by vaccinated adults, children ages 5-11 must provide a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours of arrival and those ages 12-18 must be vaccinated to enter Malta.
Although U.S. citizens are permitted to enter Moldova, the U.S. Embassy in Moldova is currently advising citizens to refrain from doing so.
Travelers age 5 and older who do enter Moldova must present a negative PCR test taken within 72 hours of arrival (to avoid two weeks of self-isolation). Fully vaccinated travelers are now exempt from testing requirements.
More information on travel to Moldova is available from the Moldovian government.
As of June 9, 2021, fully vaccinated travelers from the USA and Canada are permitted to travel to France and Monaco, as France handles immigration and customs for Monaco, per the Monaco government.
In addition to reporting travel plans to Monaco’s health authorities, travelers must show proof of vaccination, along with one of the following:
- Negative results of a PCR test taken within 72 hours.
- Negative antigen test taken within 48 hours of boarding.
Travelers meeting the above criteria will not need to quarantine upon arrival.
The French government requires all international travelers arriving into or transiting through France, including those returning to Monaco, to complete an online COVID-19 symptoms form to be presented to your airline and then border officers upon arrival.
Unvaccinated travelers wishing to enter Monaco who are not citizens or permanent residents of a Schengen or EU country may request authorization through the Embassy of Monaco and may only do so for essential reasons.
Montenegro remains open to foreigners and Montenegrin citizens, including Americans, as noted by the U.S. Embassy in Montenegro but there are a few caveats
As of Tuesday, September 14, The country requires U.S. travelers and others to be vaccinated.
Here are all the requirements for entry:
- Must have received 2nd dose more than 14 days before border crossing for two dose vaccines, OR 14 days since immunization with J&J vaccine;
- Must have negative PCR Covid-19 test not older than 72 hours OR a positive PCR test older than 14 and no older than 180 days;
- Must get tested negative with rapid antigen test within 48 hours.
See more from the Montenegro government here.
As of June 24, 2021, Americans were able to travel freely to the Netherlands with no vaccine, negative COVID-19 test or quarantine required upon arrival, as the Dutch government added the U.S. to its list of “safe countries.”
That has since changed dramatically. While the Netherlands has walked back a requirement for Americans to quarantine, you will now need to be fully vaccinated and have a negative test.
The only travel requirement for Americans to fulfill ahead of time is the submission of a health declaration form, which some airlines allow you to complete digitally upon checking in for your flight, as noted by Dutch officials.
From Sept. 22, 2021, fully vaccinated visitors from the U.K., the U.S. and other countries on that list will no longer need to quarantine upon arrival in the Netherlands, according to USA Today.
Vaccinated travelers are still required to show a negative COVID-19 PCR test result upon arrival. People who are 13 and older who arrive by plane must also fill out a health declaration and carry it with them throughout their trip.
Unvaccinated visitors from high-risk countries are still prohibited from entering the Netherlands.
The Dutch government will still require a negative PCR test within 72 hours and a negative rapid test within 24 hours prior to departure or a negative PCR test within 24 hours prior to departure.
For the latest updates on who is allowed to visit, check here.
North Macedonia is open to all tourists, including Americans.
According to the U.S. Embassy:
Effective September 1, all travelers ages eighteen and older entering and exiting North Macedonia must provide one of the following documents:
- Vaccination certificate with two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine;
- Negative PCR test taken within 72 hours prior to travel;
- Negative rapid antigen test taken within 48 hours prior to travel; or
- Certificate of COVID-19 recovery issued within the previous 45 days, counting from the day of recovery.
Skopje International Airport (SKP) and Ohrid St. Paul the Apostle Airport (OHD) reopened on July 1, 2020.
All arriving passengers will face temperature screening, but there are no quarantine or testing requirements for travelers beyond those arriving from India, who are required to quarantine for 14 days. Check the U.S. Embassy in North Macedonia for updates.
As of Sept. 17, 2021, Norway remains closed to travelers from the U.S., according to the U.S. Embassy in Norway: “Currently, residents of the United States are not permitted to enter Norway, with limited exceptions.”
Only vaccinated travelers and those who have recovered from COVID-19 in the past six months from the EU/EEA/Schengen Area as well as those from designated “green countries” are able to enter Norway, per the Norweigan government. Additionally, “green country” entrants are able to travel to Norway without having to quarantine.
More countries will be added to the “green” list as Norway adopts the EU’s color code standards to lift travel restrictions for residents of some “third countries,” including the U.S. Exact dates for this are not in place yet. Currently the United States falls under Norways’ “purple countries,” which severely limits travel.
All travelers to Norway over the age of 12 who are allowed to enter must now complete a registration form prior to traveling, present a negative COVID-19 PCR test result taken within 24 hours of travel and also be tested again for COVID-19 as soon as possible after arrival (usually at the airport, and it must take place within one day) and enter and pay for a 10-day quarantine in a quarantine hotel (reduced to seven days with two negative tests, one upon arrival and a PCR test no earlier than day seven).
On April 29, 2021, Norway introduced stricter testing requirements for travelers who have been outside the EEA/Schengen Area. The latest updates on testing and quarantine can be found through the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.
Poland is open to U.S. citizens according to several TPG readers, though the embassy language remains a bit confusing.
Vaccinated individuals can avoid mandatory quarantine, and any travelers entering Poland from within the Schengen Area must present a negative PCR or antigen test taken at least 48 hours prior to arrival or enter a 10-day quarantine.
Unvaccinated travelers arriving from outside the Schengen Area must quarantine for 10 days or until they receive a negative result from a test taken within 48 hours of arrival in Poland; those who can show a certificate of vaccination against COVID-19 are exempt from quarantine.
The U.S. Embassy website makes it sound like Americans are not allowed, with the exception of U.S. citizens who have dual citizenship or fall within certain other categories.
But several TPG readers have told me they were able to visit without problems. Jackson Willhelm told me, “If you are fully vaccinated with an EU-approved vaccine then you do not have to quarantine (14 days after last shot) and the passenger locator form needs to be filled out online. I personally wasn’t even asked to show proof of vaccination at any point.”
Portugal is open to tourists from the U.S. with proof of a negative COVID-19 test, per the U.S. Embassy in Portugal.
All travelers age 2 and older must submit a negative PCR test performed in the last 72 hours or a rapid antigen test performed within 48 hours of boarding. The U.S. government says you may be asked to quarantine upon arrival and those from certain countries are required to do so for two weeks, per the Portuguese government.
Travelers also must fill out an online form and face a health screening, and those from certain countries must self-quarantine for 14 days. Details are available on the TAP Air Portugal website.
Masks are mandatory in indoor public spaces and outside when social distancing isn’t possible.
On June 1, 2021, the Romanian government eliminated restrictions on nonessential travel for foreigners, per the Romanian Embassy in D.C.
However, quarantine for 14 days is required if you are unvaccinated, with a test-out option on day 10 with a negative test from day 8.
The U.S. Embassy in Romania says foreign citizens will be subject to quarantine unless they present proof of testing, vaccination or recovery from COVID-19. Otherwise, foreign citizens arriving in Romania from third countries (countries that are not members of the EU, EEA or Swiss Confederation) must quarantine for 14 days regardless of your country/zone of arrival. Read here for further information on additional exemptions.
You may be asked to undergo a health screening upon arrival at Henri Coanda International Airport (OTP), along with an online questionnaire.
Since March 18, 2020, U.S. citizens have remained banned, along with most foreign nationals, from visiting Russia, the U.S. Embassy in Russia notes.
The Russian government requires that all foreign travelers present a negative PCR COVID-19 test result upon arrival, dated within three days prior to arrival in Russia, along with completion of a digital form that must be printed out and presented to customs in Russia.
According to the U.S. Embassy in Serbia, Americans are welcome in Serbia, but there is a new requirement for a negative PCR or antigen test no older than 48 hours old at the time of arrival in the country.
As of July 19, 2021, Slovakia is again open to American visitors per the U.S. Embassy in Slovakia.
Fully vaccinated travelers do not need COVID-19 test results and do not need to self-quarantine
The Slovakian Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs maintains a list of current country color designations, as their pandemic control measures vary regionally based on its traffic light system, which automatically updates restrictions weekly based on local disease indicators and divides counties into three groups for border entry requirements: green, red and black.
According to the embassy, “Unvaccinated travelers must self-quarantine for 14 days, or they may self-quarantine for at least 5 days, take a PCR test, and self-quarantine ends upon receipt of negative test results. ”
All passengers age 10 and older who do not fall into a specific exemption category must fill out an electronic monitoring form in advance to present at the border.
All travelers who have visited only “green countries” in the prior 14 days and are fully vaccinated, recovered from COVID-19 within 180 days, and/or are under 18 years old do not need to present test results or self-quarantine. Unvaccinated travelers over 18 years old who have not recovered from COVID-19 within the last 180 days but have only been present in “green countries” in the prior 14 days must quarantine until they receive negative results of a PCR or antigen test. If travelers do not want to take a test, they may self-isolate for 14 days instead. Quarantine requirements vary based on age, travel within the previous 14 days and vaccination status. Consult the U.S. Embassy in Slovakia for updated information.
According to the U.S. Embassy, “all eligible travelers must register online in advance at korona.gov.sk/ehranica. Fully vaccinated travelers do not need to quarantine, however, they must carry proof of vaccination.”
Americans are welcome to Slovenia for nonessential travel, including tourism, as long as they are fully vaccinated or recently recovered from COVID-19, per the U.S. Embassy in Slovenia.
U.S. citizens who have residency in the EU or are married to a Slovenian citizen can also be admitted with proof of a negative test.
For essential travel, U.S. citizens are required to submit proof of completed vaccination, recovery from COVID-19 or a negative PCR or rapid antigen test. Those without proof may be asked to quarantine for 10 days.
Children under age 15 accompanying their parents can bypass quarantine and testing requirements.
The Slovenian government provides an optional web application to fill out ahead of time for smoother entry, including for transiting passengers.
The country also welcomes travelers from neighboring countries, including Austria, Croatia, Hungary and Italy. More information is available from the Slovenian Police Border Crossing.
As of September, Spain is now requiring proof of vaccination for most Americans to enter Spain. The country will require proof of vaccination to enter the country — and there are almost no exceptions.
The Spanish government also requires all passengers coming to Spain from outside the country to complete a Health Control Form at least 48 hours prior to departure to the country, including international transits. You may begin to fill out the form at any time prior to your trip, excluding sections that are limited to two days prior to your arrival. Both the form and associated QR code are necessary for entry.
All passengers coming from high-risk countries are still required to submit a negative active infection diagnostic test, or PCR test carried out within 72 hours prior to arrival. Travelers will also undergo temperature checks upon arrival. The Spanish Ministry of Health maintains a list of countries by risk designation. Minors are also able to enter so long as they are accompanied by fully vaccinated adults.
Unfortunately, after a few months of being allowed in, Americans are now subject to Sweden’s entry ban, per the U.S. Embassy in Sweden.
According to the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs, U.S. passport holders who reside in nonexempt countries can transit to Sweden from third-party European countries, but there are no guarantees you will be allowed in, and any Americans trying to board direct flights to Sweden will not be allowed to board.
The Swedish Border Police maintain a list of countries by exemption, which currently lists 20 countries, including Albania, Australia and Singapore. The U.S. is no longer on that list.
Sweden is using the EU Digital COVID Certificate or requires equivalent proof of vaccination. From the Swedish Border Police, “There is an entry ban and required negative COVID-19 test in effect for travels to Sweden from non-EEA* countries until 31 October 2021.”
The EEA is comprised of the member states of the EU and the three countries of the EFTA — Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. For the purposes of travel to Sweden, the Swedish government also considers Switzerland, Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican to be part of the EEA. More information on the EEA can be found here.
Sweden will always apply entry regulations according to the last country you enter from, even if this is only a transit country.
A negative PCR or antigen COVID-19 test taken within 48 hours of arrival to Sweden is required for nonresident travelers, age 18 and older, originating outside the Nordic countries (Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Iceland).
U.S. citizens who can show they’ve been fully vaccinated or recently tested negative for COVID-19 are welcome back to Switzerland, according to the U.S. Embassy in Switzerland. This applies to all fully vaccinated individuals from third countries, which consist of those outside the Schengen Area. To explore eligibility by country, use the Travelcheck tool administered by the Swiss government.
To enter freely, the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health says you must show one of the following:
- Proof of full vaccination.
- Results of a negative COVID-19 test.
- Recovery from COVID-19.
Otherwise, if you are traveling to Switzerland by plane and cannot prove one of the above, you will be required to take a test.
The Swiss State Secretary for Migration has a list of high-risk countries that outlines whether or not you can enter Switzerland.
Note that if you have been in a country with a “worrying variant” in the last 10 days before entering Switzerland, are not vaccinated or are unable to prove that you have recovered from COVID-19 in the last six months, you must self-isolate for 10 days, with the potential to shorten after seven days via a negative COVID-19 test. Fully vaccinated individuals are exempt from testing and quarantine requirements depending on their country of origin.
Additionally, all travelers must complete an entry form ahead of time.
Note that as of Sept. 13, 2021, Switzerland is requiring a “vaccine passport” for many activities outlined below:
Turkey’s international borders remain open for travelers from a number of countries, including the U.S., according to the U.S. Embassy in Turkey.
Travelers over the age of 12 may enter Turkey seamlessly by showing proof of full vaccination at least 14 days before arrival or documentation of COVID-19 recovery in the past six months. Otherwise, all passengers from a country other than Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Brazil, Egypt, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka or the United Kingdom, must show results of a negative COVID-19 PCR test taken within 72 hours of arrival or rapid antigen taken within 48 hours.
Additionally, all travelers are to complete a Turkey Entrance Form, both to be submitted at airline check-in (a printed copy or mobile screenshot of the form is acceptable).
Turkish Airlines outlines additional restrictions specific to the country here.
Related: Turkey is open to Americans
Upon arrival, travelers will be asked to fill out a passenger information form and undergo medical screenings for infection, and anyone showing symptoms upon arrival will be tested for COVID-19. Anyone who tests positive will be referred to a Turkish hospital for quarantine and treatment.
The State Department’s travelers checklist for Turkey can be found here.
U.S. citizens are currently able to enter the country, per the U.S. Embassy in Ukraine.
All U.S. citizens age 12 and older entering Ukraine from the U.S. must now show one of the following:
- A negative PCR test taken within 72 hours of entering Ukraine.
- A negative antigen test.
- Proof of full vaccination.
- Proof of medical insurance covering all expenses related to COVID-19 treatment while on the territory of Ukraine. Ukrainian health insurance coverage can be purchased online at visitukraine.today. You can find further details and exceptions to this requirement on the ministry’s website.
More information can be found from the Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Americans can now travel to the United Kingdom. U.S. travelers must possess proof of vaccination and proof of a negative COVID-19 test to enter the U.K. without a 10-day quarantine.
There is further good news. As of Oct. 4, 2021, the U.K. will allow Americans who are fully vaccinated to skip prearrival testing. Other requirements are expected to be eased soon.
If you are fully vaccinated you can go by following the following steps:
- Take a COVID-19 test (either PCR or antigen) within three days of departure.
- Book and pay for a COVID-19 test to be taken on day two of your arrival in England. Qured is the testing provider suggested by the U.K. government.
- Complete an online passenger locator form.
If you are unvaccinated, you can still go, but you must:
- Present a negative COVID-19 test taken within 72 hours of departure.
- Quarantine for 10 days, during which you must complete two additional COVID-19 tests on days two and eight.
- Complete a passenger locator form within 48 hours of travel.
The quarantine rules do not apply to international passengers transiting U.K. airports.
Note that quarantine can be reduced after one negative COVID-19 PCR test taken on day five under the Test to Release scheme. Children age 4 and younger do not need to take the day two or day eight test. The U.K. government maintains a list of countries by color designation.
On Feb. 8, 2021, the U.K. also increased the fine for noncompliance and anyone who fails to comply will be subject to a fine of 1,000 pounds ($1,360). The government also revealed stiff fines and even jail time for those who try to circumvent the mandates or lie on their required passenger locator forms; the latter could be a 10,000-pound ($13,789) fine or 10 years in jail. More details are here.
Scotland also allows unvaccinated Americans to visit, but with strict quarantine and testing requirements.
The U.K. has been especially hard-hit by the coronavirus and the new restrictions are a result of the chaos that erupted in December 2020 when a more infectious COVID-19 variant was found to be widely circulating in London and southeastern England.
Additional reporting by Jordyn Fields, Donna Heiderstadt, Liz Hund and Caroline Tanner.
Featured photo of Venice in 2018 by Clint Henderson/The Points Guy.
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